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various.txt   Nvim

                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar

Various commands                                        various

                                      Type gO to see the table of contents.

1. Various commands                                     various-cmds

CTRL-L                  Clears and redraws the screen.  The redraw may happen
                        later, after processing typeahead.
                        By default, also clears search highlighting
                        :nohlsearch and updates diffs :diffupdate.

                                                        :mod :mode
:mod[e]                 Clears and redraws the screen.

                                                        :redr :redraw
:redr[aw][!]            Redraws pending screen updates now, or the entire
                        screen if "!" is included.  To CLEAR the screen use
                        :mode or CTRL-L.
                        Useful to update the screen during a script or
                        function (or a mapping if 'lazyredraw' set).

                                                :redraws :redrawstatus
:redraws[tatus][!]      Redraws the status line and window bar of the current
                        window, or all status lines and window bars if "!" is
                        included. Useful if 'statusline' or 'winbar' includes
                        an item that doesn't cause automatic updating.

                                                :redrawt :redrawtabline
:redrawt[abline]        Redraw the tabline.  Useful to update the tabline when
                        'tabline' includes an item that doesn't trigger
                        automatic updating.

<Del>                   When entering a number: Remove the last digit.
                        Note: if you like to use <BS> for this, add this
                        mapping to your vimrc: 
                                :map CTRL-V <BS>   CTRL-V <Del>

:as[cii]        or                                      ga :as :ascii
ga                      Print the ascii value of the character under the
                        cursor in decimal, hexadecimal and octal.
                        Mnemonic: Get Ascii value.

                        For example, when the cursor is on a 'R':
                                <R>  82,  Hex 52,  Octal 122 
                        When the character is a non-standard ASCII character,
                        but printable according to the 'isprint' option, the
                        non-printable version is also given.

                        When the character is larger than 127, the <M-x> form
                        is also printed.  For example:
                                <~A>  <M-^A>  129,  Hex 81,  Octal 201 
                                <p>  <|~>  <M-~>  254,  Hex fe,  Octal 376 
                        (where <p> is a special character)

                        The <Nul> character in a file is stored internally as
                        <NL>, but it will be shown as:
                                <^@>  0,  Hex 00,  Octal 000 

                        If the character has composing characters these are
                        also shown.  The value of 'maxcombine' doesn't matter.

                        If the character can be inserted as a digraph, also
                        output the two characters that can be used to create
                        the character:
                            <ö> 246, Hex 00f6, Oct 366, Digr o: 
                        This shows you can type CTRL-K o : to insert ö.

g8                      Print the hex values of the bytes used in the
                        character under the cursor, assuming it is in UTF-8
                        encoding.  This also shows composing characters.  The
                        value of 'maxcombine' doesn't matter.
                        Example of a character with two composing characters:
                                e0 b8 81 + e0 b8 b9 + e0 b9 89 

8g8                     Find an illegal UTF-8 byte sequence at or after the
                        cursor.  This works in two situations:
                        1. when 'encoding' is any 8-bit encoding
                        2. when 'encoding' is "utf-8" and 'fileencoding' is
                           any 8-bit encoding
                        Thus it can be used when editing a file that was
                        supposed to be UTF-8 but was read as if it is an 8-bit
                        encoding because it contains illegal bytes.
                        Does not wrap around the end of the file.
                        Note that when the cursor is on an illegal byte or the
                        cursor is halfway through a multibyte character the
                        command won't move the cursor.

                                                :p :pr :print E749
:[range]p[rint] [flags]
                        Print [range] lines (default current line).
                        Note: If you are looking for a way to print your text
                        on paper see :hardcopy.  In the GUI you can use the
                        File.Print menu entry.
                        See ex-flags for [flags].
                        The :filter command can be used to only show lines
                        matching a pattern.

:[range]p[rint] {count} [flags]
                        Print {count} lines, starting with [range] (default
                        current line cmdline-ranges).
                        See ex-flags for [flags].

                                                        :l :list
:[range]l[ist] [count] [flags]
                        Same as :print, but show tabs as ">", trailing spaces
                        as "-", and non-breakable space characters as "+" by
                        default.  Further changed by the 'listchars' option.
                        See ex-flags for [flags].

                                                        :nu :number
:[range]nu[mber] [count] [flags]
                        Same as :print, but precede each line with its line
                        number.  (See also hl-LineNr and 'numberwidth').
                        See ex-flags for [flags].

:[range]# [count] [flags]
                        synonym for :number.

:#!{anything}           Ignored, so that you can start a Vim script with: 
                                #!vim -S
                                echo "this is a Vim script"

                                                        :z E144
:[range]z[+-^.=][count] Display several lines of text surrounding the line
                        specified with [range], or around the current line
                        if there is no [range].

                        If there is a [count], that's how many lines you'll
                        see; if there is no [count] and only one window then
                        twice the value of the 'scroll' option is used,
                        otherwise the current window height minus 3 is used.
                        This is the value of "scr" in the table below.

                        If there is a [count] the 'window' option is set to
                        its value.

                        :z can be used either alone or followed by any of
                        several marks.  These have the following effect:

                        mark   first line    last line      new cursor line 
                        ----   ----------    ---------      ------------
                        +      current line  1 scr forward  1 scr forward
                        -      1 scr back    current line   current line
                        ^      2 scr back    1 scr back     1 scr back
                        .      1/2 scr back  1/2 scr fwd    1/2 scr fwd
                        =      1/2 scr back  1/2 scr fwd    current line

                        Specifying no mark at all is the same as "+".
                        If the mark is "=", a line of dashes is printed
                        around the current line.

                        Like ":z", but when [count] is not specified, it
                        defaults to the Vim window height minus one.

:[range]z[!]#[+-^.=][count]                             :z#
                        Like ":z" or ":z!", but number the lines.

:= [flags]              Print the last line number.
                        See ex-flags for [flags].

:{range}= [flags]       Prints the last line number in {range}.  For example,
                        this prints the current line number: 
                       See ex-flags for [flags].

:norm[al][!] {commands}                                 :norm :normal
                        Execute Normal mode commands {commands}.  This makes
                        it possible to execute Normal mode commands typed on
                        the command-line.  {commands} are executed like they
                        are typed.  For undo all commands are undone together.
                        Execution stops when an error is encountered.

                        If the [!] is given, mappings will not be used.
                        Without it, when this command is called from a
                        non-remappable mapping (:noremap), the argument can
                        be mapped anyway.

                        {commands} should be a complete command.  If
                        {commands} does not finish a command, the last one
                        will be aborted as if <Esc> or <C-C> was typed.
                        This implies that an insert command must be completed
                        (to start Insert mode, see :startinsert).  A ":"
                        command must be completed as well.  And you can't use
                        "Q" or "gQ" to start Ex mode.

                        The display is not updated while ":normal" is busy.

                        {commands} cannot start with a space.  Put a count of
                        1 (one) before it, "1 " is one space.

                        This command cannot be followed by another command,
                        since any '|' is considered part of the command.

                        This command can be used recursively, but the depth is
                        limited by 'maxmapdepth'.

                        An alternative is to use :execute, which uses an
                        expression as argument.  This allows the use of
                        printable characters to represent special characters.

                                :exe "normal \<c-w>\<c-w>"

:{range}norm[al][!] {commands}                          :normal-range
                        Execute Normal mode commands {commands} for each line
                        in the {range}.  Before executing the {commands}, the
                        cursor is positioned in the first column of the range,
                        for each line.  Otherwise it's the same as the
                        ":normal" command without a range.

                                                  :sh :shell E371 E360
:sh[ell]                Removed. vim-differences

                                                  :terminal :te
:te[rminal][!] [{cmd}]  Run {cmd} in a non-interactive 'shell' in a new
                        terminal-emulator buffer. Without {cmd}, start an
                        interactive 'shell'.

                        Type i to enter Terminal-mode, then keys are sent to
                        the job running in the terminal. Type <C-\><C-N> to
                        leave Terminal-mode. CTRL-\_CTRL-N. Type <C-\><C-O>
                        to execute a single normal mode command t_CTRL-\_CTRL-O

                        Fails if changes have been made to the current buffer,
                        unless 'hidden' is set.

                        To enter Terminal-mode automatically: 
                              autocmd TermOpen * startinsert

                                                        :!cmd :!
:!{cmd}                 Execute {cmd} with 'shell'. See also :terminal.

                        The command runs in a non-interactive shell connected
                        to a pipe (not a terminal). Use :terminal to run an
                        interactive shell connected to a terminal.

                        Backgrounded ("&") commands must not write to stdout
                        or stderr, the streams are closed immediately. E5677
                        Use jobstart() instead. 
                                :call jobstart('foo', {'detach':1})

                        Any "!" in {cmd} is replaced with the previous
                        external command (see also 'cpoptions'), unless
                        escaped by a backslash.  Example: ":!ls" followed by
                        ":!echo ! \! \\!" executes "echo ls ! \!".

                        Any "|" in {cmd} is passed to the shell, you cannot
                        use it to append a Vim command.  See :bar.

                        Any "%" in {cmd} is expanded to the current file name.
                        Any "#" in {cmd} is expanded to the alternate file name.
                        Special characters are not escaped, use quotes or
                                :!ls "%"
                                :exe "!ls " .. shellescape(expand("%"))

                        Newline character ends {cmd} unless a backslash
                        precedes the newline.  What follows is interpreted as
                        another : command.

                        After the command has been executed, the timestamp and
                        size of the current file is checked timestamp.

                        If the command produces too much output some lines may
                        be skipped so the command can execute quickly.  No
                        data is lost, this only affects the display.  The last
                        few lines are always displayed (never skipped).

                        To avoid the hit-enter prompt use: 
                                :silent !{cmd}

:!!                     Repeat last ":!{cmd}".

                                                        :ve :ver :version
:ve[rsion]              Print editor version and build information.
                        See also feature-compile.

                                                        :redi :redir
:redi[r][!] > {file}    Redirect messages to file {file}.  The messages which
                        are the output of commands are written to that file,
                        until redirection ends.  The messages are also still
                        shown on the screen.  When [!] is included, an
                        existing file is overwritten.  When [!] is omitted,
                        and {file} exists, this command fails.

                        Only one ":redir" can be active at a time.  Calls to
                        ":redir" will close any active redirection before
                        starting redirection to the new target.  For recursive
                        use check out execute().

                        To stop the messages and commands from being echoed to
                        the screen, put the commands in a function and call it
                        with ":silent call Function()".
                        Alternatives are the 'verbosefile' option or
                        execute() function, these can be used in combination
                        with ":redir".

:redi[r] >> {file}      Redirect messages to file {file}.  Append if {file}
                        already exists.

:redi[r] @{a-zA-Z}
:redi[r] @{a-zA-Z}>     Redirect messages to register {a-z}.  Append to the
                        contents of the register if its name is given
                        uppercase {A-Z}.  The ">" after the register name is
:redi[r] @{a-z}>>       Append messages to register {a-z}.

:redi[r] @*>
:redi[r] @+>            Redirect messages to the selection or clipboard. For
                        backward compatibility, the ">" after the register
                        name can be omitted. See quotestar and quoteplus.
:redi[r] @*>>
:redi[r] @+>>           Append messages to the selection or clipboard.

:redi[r] @">            Redirect messages to the unnamed register. For
                        backward compatibility, the ">" after the register
                        name can be omitted.
:redi[r] @">>           Append messages to the unnamed register.

:redi[r] => {var}       Redirect messages to a variable.  If the variable
                        doesn't exist, then it is created.  If the variable
                        exists, then it is initialized to an empty string.
                        The variable will remain empty until redirection ends.
                        Only string variables can be used.  After the
                        redirection starts, if the variable is removed or
                        locked or the variable type is changed, then further
                        command output messages will cause errors.  When using
                        a local variable (l:var in a function or s:var in a
                        script) and another :redir causes the current one to
                        end, the scope might be different and the assignment
                        To get the output of one command the execute()
                        function can be used instead of redirection.

:redi[r] =>> {var}      Append messages to an existing variable.  Only string
                        variables can be used.

:redi[r] END            End redirecting messages.

                                                        :filt :filter
:filt[er][!] {pattern} {command}
:filt[er][!] /{pattern}/ {command}
                        Restrict the output of {command} to lines matching
                        with {pattern}.  For example, to list only xml files: 
                                :filter /\.xml$/ oldfiles
                       If the [!] is given, restrict the output of {command}
                        to lines that do NOT match {pattern}.

                        {pattern} is a Vim search pattern.  Instead of enclosing
                        it in / any non-ID character (see 'isident') can be
                        used, so long as it does not appear in {pattern}.
                        Without the enclosing character the pattern cannot
                        include the bar character. 'ignorecase' is not used.

                        The pattern is matched against the relevant part of
                        the output, not necessarily the whole line. Only some
                        commands support filtering, try it out to check if it
                        works. Some of the commands that support filtering:
                           :#          - filter whole line
                           :clist      - filter by file name or module name
                           :command    - filter by command name
                           :files      - filter by file name
                           :highlight  - filter by highlight group
                           :jumps      - filter by file name
                           :let        - filter by variable name
                           :list       - filter whole line
                           :llist      - filter by file name or module name
                           :marks      - filter by text in the current file,
                                           or file name for other files
                           :oldfiles   - filter by file name
                           :registers  - filter by register contents
                                           (does not work multi-line)
                           :set        - filter by option name

                        Only normal messages are filtered, error messages are

                                                :sil :silent :silent!
:sil[ent][!] {command}  Execute {command} silently.  Normal messages will not
                        be given or added to the message history.
                        When [!] is added, error messages will also be
                        skipped, and commands and mappings will not be aborted
                        when an error is detected.  v:errmsg is still set.
                        When [!] is not used, an error message will cause
                        further messages to be displayed normally.
                        Redirection, started with :redir, will continue as
                        usual, although there might be small differences.
                        This will allow redirecting the output of a command
                        without seeing it on the screen.  Example: 
                            :redir >/tmp/foobar
                            :silent g/Aap/p
                            :redir END
                       To execute a Normal mode command silently, use the
                        :normal command.  For example, to search for a
                        string without messages: 
                            :silent exe "normal /path\<CR>"
                       ":silent!" is useful to execute a command that may
                        fail, but the failure is to be ignored.  Example: 
                            :let v:errmsg = ""
                            :silent! /^begin
                            :if v:errmsg != ""
                            : ... pattern was not found
                       ":silent" also skips the hit-enter prompt.
                        Dialogs that prompt for user input (confirm(),
                        'swapfile', …) are never silent.

                                                :uns :unsilent
:uns[ilent] {command}   Execute {command} not silently.  Only makes a
                        difference when :silent was used to get to this
                        Use this for giving a message even when :silent was
                        used.  In this example :silent is used to avoid the
                        message about reading the file and :unsilent to be
                        able to list the first line of each file. 
                :silent argdo unsilent echo expand('%') .. ": " .. getline(1)

                                                :verb :verbose
:[count]verb[ose] {command}
                        Execute {command} with 'verbose' set to [count].  If
                        [count] is omitted one is used. ":0verbose" can be
                        used to set 'verbose' to zero.
                        The additional use of ":silent" makes messages
                        generated but not displayed.
                        The combination of ":silent" and ":verbose" can be
                        used to generate messages and check them with
                        v:statusmsg and friends.  For example: 
                                :let v:statusmsg = ""
                                :silent verbose runtime foobar.vim
                                :if v:statusmsg != ""
                                :  " foobar.vim could not be found
                       When concatenating another command, the ":verbose"
                        only applies to the first one: 
                                :4verbose set verbose | set verbose
                        For logging verbose messages in a file use the
                        'verbosefile' option.

When 'verbose' is non-zero, listing the value of a Vim option or a key map or
an abbreviation or a user-defined function or a command or a highlight group
or an autocommand will also display where it was last defined. If they were
defined in Lua they will only be located if 'verbose' is set. So Start
nvim with -V1 arg to see them. If it was defined manually then there
will be no "Last set" message.  When it was defined while executing a function,
user command or autocommand, the script in which it was defined is reported.

[count]K                Runs the program given by 'keywordprg' to lookup the
                        word (defined by 'iskeyword') under or right of the
                        cursor. Default is "man". Works like this: 
                                :tabnew | terminal {program} {keyword}
                       Special cases:
                        - If 'keywordprg' begins with ":" it is invoked as
                          a Vim command with [count].
                        - If 'keywordprg' is empty, :help is used.
                        - When 'keywordprg' is equal to "man", a [count]
                          before "K" is inserted after the "man" command and
                          before the keyword.  For example, using "2K" while
                          the cursor is on "mkdir", results in: 
                                !man 2 mkdir
                       - When 'keywordprg' is equal to "man -s", a [count]
                          before "K" is inserted after the "-s".  If there is
                          no count, the "-s" is removed.

{Visual}K               Like "K", but use the visually highlighted text for
                        the keyword.  Only works when the highlighted text is
                        not more than one line.

gO                      Show a filetype-specific, navigable "outline" of the
                        current buffer. For example, in a help buffer this
                        shows the table of contents.

                        Currently works in help and :Man buffers.

[N]gs                                                   gs :sl :sleep
:[N]sl[eep] [N][m]      Do nothing for [N] seconds, or [N] milliseconds if [m]
                        was given.  "gs" always uses seconds.
                        Default is one second. 
                             :sleep          "sleep for one second
                             :5sleep         "sleep for five seconds
                             :sleep 100m     "sleep for 100 milliseconds
                             10gs            "sleep for ten seconds
                       Can be interrupted with CTRL-C.
                        "gs" stands for "goto sleep".
                        While sleeping the cursor is positioned in the text,
                        if at a visible position.
                        Queued messages are processed during the sleep.

                                                        :sl! :sleep!
:[N]sl[eep]! [N][m]     Same as above. Unlike Vim, it does not hide the
                        cursor. vim-differences

2. Using Vim like less or more                                  less

If you use the less or more program to view a file, you don't get syntax
highlighting.  Thus you would like to use Vim instead.  You can do this by
using the shell script "$VIMRUNTIME/macros/less.sh".

This shell script uses the Vim script "$VIMRUNTIME/macros/less.vim".  It sets
up mappings to simulate the commands that less supports.  Otherwise, you can
still use the Vim commands.

This isn't perfect.  For example, when viewing a short file Vim will still use
the whole screen.  But it works well enough for most uses, and you get syntax

The "h" key will give you a short overview of the available commands.

If you want to set options differently when using less, define the
LessInitFunc in your vimrc, for example: 

        func LessInitFunc()
          set nocursorcolumn nocursorline


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