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develop.txt          Nvim


                            NVIM REFERENCE MANUAL


Development of Nvim                                     development dev

This reference describes design constraints and guidelines, for developing
Nvim applications or Nvim itself.
Architecture and internal concepts are covered in src/nvim/README.md

Nvim is free and open source.  Everybody is encouraged to contribute.
    https://github.com/neovim/neovim/blob/master/CONTRIBUTING.md

                                      Type gO to see the table of contents.

==============================================================================
Design goals                                            design-goals

Most important things come first (roughly).  Some items conflict; this is
intentional.  A balance must be found.


NVIM IS... IMPROVED                                     design-improved

The Neo bits of Nvim should make it a better Vim, without becoming a
completely different editor.
- In matters of taste, prefer Vim/Unix tradition. If there is no relevant
  Vim/Unix tradition, consider the "common case".
- A feature that people do not know about is a useless feature.  Don't add
  obscure features, or at least add hints in documentation that they exist.
- There is no limit to the features that can be added.  Selecting new features
  is based on (1) what users ask for, (2) how much effort it takes to
  implement and (3) someone actually implementing it.
- Backwards compatibility is a feature.  The RPC API in particular should
  never break.


NVIM IS... WELL DOCUMENTED                              design-documented

- A feature that isn't documented is a useless feature.  A patch for a new
  feature must include the documentation.
- Documentation should be comprehensive and understandable.  Use examples.
- Don't make the text unnecessarily long.  Less documentation means that an
  item is easier to find.


NVIM IS... FAST AND SMALL                               design-speed-size

Keep Nvim small and fast.
- Computers are becoming faster and bigger each year.  Vim can grow too, but
  no faster than computers are growing.  Keep Vim usable on older systems.
- Many users start Vim from a shell very often.  Startup time must be short.
- Commands must work efficiently.  The time they consume must be as small as
  possible.  Useful commands may take longer.
- Don't forget that some people use Vim over a slow connection.  Minimize the
  communication overhead.
- Vim is a component among other components.  Don't turn it into a massive
  application, but have it work well together with other programs.


NVIM IS... MAINTAINABLE                                 design-maintain

- The source code should not become a mess.  It should be reliable code.
- Use comments in a useful way!  Quoting the function name and argument names
  is NOT useful.  Do explain what they are for.
- Porting to another platform should be made easy, without having to change
  too much platform-independent code.
- Use the object-oriented spirit: Put data and code together.  Minimize the
  knowledge spread to other parts of the code.


NVIM IS... NOT                                          design-not

Nvim is not an operating system; instead it should be composed with other
tools or hosted as a component. Marvim once said: "Unlike Emacs, Nvim does not
include the kitchen sink... but it's good for plumbing."


==============================================================================
Developer guidelines                                    dev-guidelines


PROVIDERS                                               dev-provider

A primary goal of Nvim is to allow extension of the editor without special
knowledge in the core.  Some core functions are delegated to "providers"
implemented as external scripts.

Examples:

1. In the Vim source code, clipboard logic accounts for more than 1k lines of
   C source code (ui.c), to perform two tasks that are now accomplished with
   shell commands such as xclip or pbcopy/pbpaste.

2. Python scripting support: Vim has three files dedicated to embedding the
   Python interpreter: if_python.c, if_python3.c and if_py_both.h. Together
   these files sum about 9.5k lines of C source code. In contrast, Nvim Python
   scripting is performed by an external host process implemented in ~2k lines
   of Python.

The provider framework invokes VimL from C.  It is composed of two functions
in eval.c:

- eval_call_provider(name, method, arguments, discard): calls
  provider#{name}#Call with the method and arguments. If discard is true, any
  value returned by the provider will be discarded and empty value will be
  returned.
- eval_has_provider(name): Checks the g:loaded_{name}_provider variable
  which must be set to 2 by the provider script to indicate that it is
  "enabled and working". Called by has() to check if features are available.

For example, the Python provider is implemented by the
"autoload/provider/python.vim" script, which sets g:loaded_python_provider
to 2 only if a valid external Python host is found.  Then has("python")
reflects whether Python support is working.

                                                        provider-reload
Sometimes a GUI or other application may want to force a provider to
"reload".  To reload a provider, undefine its "loaded" flag, then use
:runtime to reload it: 

    :unlet g:loaded_clipboard_provider
    :runtime autoload/provider/clipboard.vim


DOCUMENTATION                                           dev-doc

- "Just say it". Avoid mushy, colloquial phrasing in all documentation
  (docstrings, user manual, website materials, newsletters, …). Don't mince
  words. Personality and flavor, used sparingly, are welcome--but in general,
  optimize for the reader's time and energy: be "precise yet concise".
    - See https://developers.google.com/style/tone
    - Prefer the active voice: "Foo does X", not "X is done by Foo".
- Vim differences:
    - Do not prefix help tags with "nvim-". Use vim_diff.txt to catalog
      differences from Vim; no other distinction is necessary.
    - If a Vim feature is removed, delete its help section and move its tag to
      vim_diff.txt.
- Mention deprecated features in deprecated.txt and delete their old doc.
- Use consistent language.
    - "terminal" in a help tag always means "the embedded terminal emulator",
      not "the user host terminal".
    - Use "tui-" to prefix help tags related to the host terminal, and "TUI"
      in prose if possible.
- Docstrings: do not start parameter descriptions with "The" or "A" unless it
  is critical to avoid ambiguity. 
    GOOD:
    /// @param dirname Path fragment before `pend`
    BAD:
    /// @param dirname The path fragment before `pend`


Documentation format 

For Nvim-owned docs, use the following strict subset of "vimdoc" to ensure
the help doc renders nicely in other formats (such as HTML:
https://neovim.io/doc/user ).

Strict "vimdoc" subset:

- Use lists (like this!) prefixed with "-", "*", or "•", for adjacent lines
  that you don't want auto-wrapped. Lists are always rendered with "flow"
  (soft-wrapped) layout instead of preformatted (hard-wrapped) layout common
  in legacy :help docs.
  - Limitation: currently the parser https://github.com/neovim/tree-sitter-vimdoc
    does not understand numbered listitems, so use a bullet symbol (- or •)
    before numbered items, e.g. "- 1." instead of "1.".
- Separate blocks (paragraphs) of content by a blank line(s).
- Do not use indentation in random places—that prevents the page from using
  "flow" layout. If you need a preformatted section, put it in
  a help-codeblock starting with ">".

C docstrings 

Nvim API documentation lives in the source code, as docstrings (Doxygen
comments) on the function definitions.  The api :help is generated
from the docstrings defined in src/nvim/api/*.c.

Docstring format:
- Lines start with ///
- Special tokens start with @ followed by the token name:
  @note, @param, @returns
- Limited markdown is supported.
  - List-items start with - (useful to nest or "indent")
- Use <pre> for code samples.

Example: the help for nvim_open_win() is generated from a docstring defined
in src/nvim/api/win_config.c like this: 

    /// Opens a new window.
    /// ...
    ///
    /// Example (Lua): window-relative float
    /// <pre>
    ///     vim.api.nvim_open_win(0, false,
    ///       {relative='win', row=3, col=3, width=12, height=3})
    /// </pre>
    ///
    /// @param buffer Buffer to display
    /// @param enter  Enter the window
    /// @param config Map defining the window configuration. Keys:
    ///   - relative: Sets the window layout, relative to:
    ///      - "editor" The global editor grid.
    ///      - "win"    Window given by the `win` field.
    ///      - "cursor" Cursor position in current window.
    /// ...
    /// @param[out] err Error details, if any
    ///
    /// @return Window handle, or 0 on error


Lua docstrings 
                                                        dev-lua-doc
Lua documentation lives in the source code, as docstrings on the function
definitions.  The lua-vim :help is generated from the docstrings.

Docstring format:
- Lines in the main description start with ---
- Special tokens start with ---@ followed by the token name:
  ---@see, ---@param, ---@returns
- Limited markdown is supported.
  - List-items start with - (useful to nest or "indent")
- Use <pre> for code samples.

Example: the help for vim.paste() is generated from a docstring decorating
vim.paste in runtime/lua/vim/_editor.lua like this: 

    --- Paste handler, invoked by |nvim_paste()| when a conforming UI
    --- (such as the |TUI|) pastes text into the editor.
    ---
    --- Example: To remove ANSI color codes when pasting:
    --- <pre>
    --- vim.paste = (function()
    ---   local overridden = vim.paste
    ---   ...
    --- end)()
    --- </pre>
    ---
    ---@see |paste|
    ---
    ---@param lines  ...
    ---@param phase  ...
    ---@returns false if client should cancel the paste.


LUA                                                     dev-lua

- Keep the core Lua modules lua-stdlib simple. Avoid elaborate OOP or
  pseudo-OOP designs. Plugin authors just want functions to call, they don't
  want to learn a big, fancy inheritance hierarchy. Thus avoid specialized
  objects; tables or values are usually better.


API                                                     dev-api

Use this format to name new RPC API functions:

    nvim_{thing}_{action}_{arbitrary-qualifiers}

If the function acts on an object then {thing} is the name of that object
(e.g. "buf" or "win"). If the function operates in a "global" context then
{thing} is usually omitted (but consider "namespacing" your global operations
with a {thing} that groups functions under a common concept).

Use existing common {action} names if possible:
    - add       Append to, or insert into, a collection
    - call      Call a function
    - create    Create a new (non-trivial) thing
    - del       Delete a thing (or group of things)
    - eval      Evaluate an expression
    - exec      Execute code
    - fmt       Format
    - get       Get things (often by a query)
    - open      Open
    - parse     Parse something into a structured form
    - set       Set a thing (or group of things)

Do NOT use these deprecated verbs:
    - list      Redundant with "get"

Use consistent names for {thing} (nouns) in API functions: buffer is called
"buf" everywhere, not "buffer" in some places and "buf" in others.
    - buf       Buffer
    - chan      channel
    - cmd       Command
    - cmdline   Command-line UI or input
    - fn        Function
    - hl        Highlight
    - pos       Position
    - proc      System process
    - tabpage   Tabpage
    - win       Window

Do NOT use these deprecated nouns:
    - buffer
    - command
    - window

Example:
    nvim_get_keymap('v') operates in a global context (first parameter is not
    a Buffer). The "get" {action} indicates that it gets anything matching the
    given filter parameter. There is no need for a "list" action because
    nvim_get_keymap('') (i.e., empty filter) returns all items.

Example:
    nvim_buf_del_mark acts on a Buffer object (the first parameter)
    and uses the "del" {action}.

Use this format to name new API events:
    nvim_{thing}_{event}_event

Example:
    nvim_buf_changedtick_event


API-CLIENT                                              dev-api-client

                                                        api-client
API clients wrap the Nvim API to provide idiomatic "SDKs" for their
respective platforms (see jargon). You can build a new API client for your
favorite platform or programming language.

List of API clients:
    https://github.com/neovim/neovim/wiki/Related-projects#api-clients

                                                        pynvim
The Python client is the reference implementation for API clients.
    https://github.com/neovim/pynvim

Standard Features 

- API clients exist to hide msgpack-rpc details. The wrappers can be
  automatically generated by reading the api-metadata from Nvim. api-mapping
- Clients should call nvim_set_client_info() after connecting, so users and
  plugins can detect the client by handling the ChanInfo event. This avoids
  the need for special variables or other client hints.
- Clients should handle nvim_error_event notifications, which will be sent
  if an async request to nvim was rejected or caused an error.

Package Naming 

API client packages should NOT be named something ambiguous like "neovim" or
"python-client".  Use "nvim" as a prefix/suffix to some other identifier
following ecosystem conventions.

For example, Python packages tend to have "py" in the name, so "pynvim" is
a good name: it's idiomatic and unambiguous. If the package is named "neovim",
it confuses users, and complicates documentation and discussions.

Examples of API-client package names:
- GOOD: nvim-racket
- GOOD: pynvim
- BAD:  python-client
- BAD:  neovim

API client implementation guidelines 

- Separate the transport layer from the rest of the library. rpc-connecting
- Use a MessagePack library that implements at least version 5 of the
  MessagePack spec, which supports the BIN and EXT types used by Nvim.
- Use a single-threaded event loop library/pattern.
- Use a fiber/coroutine library for the language being used for implementing
  a client. These greatly simplify concurrency and allow the library to
  expose a blocking API on top of a non-blocking event loop without the
  complexity that comes with preemptive multitasking.
- Don't assume anything about the order of responses to RPC requests.
- Clients should expect requests, which must be handled immediately because
  Nvim is blocked while waiting for the client response.
- Clients should expect notifications, but these can be handled "ASAP" (rather
  than immediately) because they won't block Nvim.
- For C/C++ projects, consider libmpack instead of the msgpack.org library.
    https://github.com/libmpack/libmpack/
  libmpack is small (no dependencies, can inline into your C/C++ project) and
  efficient (no allocations). It also implements msgpack-RPC, the protocol
  required by Nvim.
    https://github.com/msgpack-rpc/msgpack-rpc


EXTERNAL UI                                             dev-ui

External UIs should be aware of the api-contract. In particular, future
versions of Nvim may add new items to existing events. The API is strongly
backwards-compatible, but clients must not break if new (optional) fields are
added to existing events.

Standard Features 

External UIs are expected to implement these common features:

- Call nvim_set_client_info() after connecting, so users and plugins can
  detect the UI by handling the ChanInfo event. This avoids the need for
  special variables and UI-specific config files (gvimrc, macvimrc, …).
- Cursor style (shape, color) should conform to the 'guicursor' properties
  delivered with the mode_info_set UI event.
- Send the ALT/META ("Option" on macOS) key as a <M- chord.
- Send the "super" key (Windows key, Apple key) as a <D- chord.
- Avoid mappings that conflict with the Nvim keymap-space; GUIs have many new
  chords (<C-,> <C-Enter> <C-S-x> <D-x>) and patterns ("shift shift") that do
  not potentially conflict with Nvim defaults, plugins, etc.
- Consider the "option_set" ui-global event as a hint for other GUI
  behaviors. Various UI-related options ('guifont', 'ambiwidth', …) are
  published in this event. See also "mouse_on", "mouse_off".


NAMING                                                  dev-naming

Naming is important. Consistent naming in the API and UI helps both users and
developers discover and intuitively understand related concepts ("families"),
and reduces cognitive burden. Discoverability encourages code re-use and
likewise avoids redundant, overlapping mechanisms, which reduces code
surface-area, and thereby minimizes bugs...

Naming conventions 

Use the "on_" prefix to name event handlers and also the interface for
"registering" such handlers (on_key). The dual nature is acceptable to avoid
a confused collection of naming conventions for these related concepts.


 vim:tw=78:ts=8:sw=4:et:ft=help:norl:


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